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Translation of the New Testament
Translated by Gary F.
the Director of Darkness to Light
The main difference between ALTD and ALT3 is that in the ALTD the "analytical" information is footnoted, while in ALT3 such information is included within brackets within the text. That makes the information readily available, but it makes the text awkward to read and to quote from. By putting this information in footnotes, ALTD is a much easier to read and to quote from version.
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Note: The paperback and hardback versions of ALTD are in double columns. But it is not possible to reproduce that format here.
The Analytical-Literal Translation of the New Testament: Devotional Version (ALTD) is derived from the Analytical-Literal Translation of the New Testament: Third Edition (ALT3). Both are translated by Gary F. Zeolla (www.Zeolla.org).
The purpose of the ALTD is to provide a translation of the Greek New Testament that will enable the reader to come as close to the Greek text as possible without having to be proficient in Greek. And the name of the ALTD reflects this purpose.
“Literal” refers to the fact that the ALTD is a word for word translation. All words in the original text are translated—nothing is omitted. The original grammar of the text is retained as much as possible. Any words added for clarity are bracketed, so nothing is added without it being indicated as such.
“Analytical” refers to the detailed “analysis” done on the grammar of the text. The grammar is then translated in a way which brings out “nuances” of the original text that are often missed in traditional translations.
In addition, “analytical” refers to the aids that are included in 4,300 footnotes which enable the reader to “analyze” and understand the text. Such information includes the following:
1. Alternative translations for words and phrases.
2. Possible figurative meanings or paraphrases of words and phrases.
3. Modern-day equivalents for measurement and monetary units and time designations.
4. Explanatory notes.
5. References for Old Testament quotations and other cross-references.
The main difference between ALTD and ALT3 is that in this version the above analytical information is footnoted, while in ALT3 such information was included within brackets within the text. That made the information readily available, but it made the text awkward to read and to quote from. By putting this information in footnotes, the ALTD is a much easier to read version.
Also, on rare occasions, when the literal translation is excessively awkward or hard to understand, it is footnoted and a figurative or less literal rendering is used in the text to make the ALTD more readable. When this is done, the literal translation is footnoted. The occasions when this is done are few and far between, and with the literal translation being footnoted, the ALTD is still a very literal translation of the New Testament.
With being both a literal and a readable version, the ALTD is the ideal Bible version for reading the Bible in both a “study” and a “devotional” manner. It is also ideal for public reading, quoting, or for the person new to the Bible.
The Greek text used for the ALTD is the second edition of the Byzantine Majority Text. Specifically: The New Testament in the Original Greek: Byzantine Textform. Complied and arranged by Maurice A. Robinson and William G. Pierpont, Chilton Book Publishing, 2005.
The ALTD follows the main Byzantine text but does not express the marginal alternate readings of the published text. These indicate places where the Byzantine Greek manuscripts are closely divided. A list of these alternate readings is found in the Companion Volume to the Analytical-Literal Translation. That volume was written as a “Companion” to ALT3, but most of the information it contains applies to ALTD as well.
The Companion Volume also contains an extensive “Significant Textual Variants” list. This apparatus indicates differences between the Byzantine Majority Text ALT3 and ALTD are based on and the Textus Receptus and the Critical Text, two other Greek texts often used in translation.
In addition, the Companion Volume provides background information to ALT3 and contains aids to understanding the translations seen in ALT3 and ALTD. Also available is a Complete Concordance to the Analytical-Literal Translation, making for a very helpful Thee Volume Set. For ordering details, see the translator’s Web site: www.Zeolla.org. See Appendix One for further details.
Sample Passages from the ALTD
Abbreviations and Notations
Following are the meanings of abbreviations and notations seen in the ALTD footnotes and text.
Abbreviations and Notations in Footnotes
Isaiah 7:14 – Reference for the indicated OT quote. The quote itself is in italics (e.g., Matt 1:23).
“Yahweh is Salvation” – Meaning of a proper name, placed in quotation marks (e.g., Matt 1:21).
About – Modern-day equivalent for measurements and monetary units (e.g., Matt 13:33).
A.D. – Anno Domini. In the year of the Lord. Used in dates (e.g., Matt 3:1).
and elsewhere in – The footnoted information applies to other occurrences of the word or phrase in the given range, but not necessarily to all occurrences (e.g., Rom 8:1).
and throughout/ and in – The footnoted information applies to all occurrences of the word or phrase throughout the given range (e.g., Matt 1:20).
B.C. – Before Christ. Used in dates (e.g., Matt 2:1).
ca. – Circa, “about.” Used with approximate dates (e.g., Matt 2:1).
cp. – Compare. A cross reference (e.g., Matt 1:1).
fig. – Figurative. Possible figurative meaning or paraphrase of the literal translation in the text (e.g., Matt 1:18).
Gr. – Greek. The Greek word the English is derived from, with the Greek letters transliterated (changed) into English letters (e.g., Matt 3:6).
Heb. – Hebrew. The OT quote is taken from the Hebrew text of the OT and not the LXX since the quote matches the Hebrew but differs from the LXX (e.g., Matt 2:15).
i.e. – Explanatory note (“that is” or “in explanation”) (e.g., Matt 2:11).
lit. – Literal translation of a figurative or less literal rendering used in the text (e.g., Matt 2:2).
LXX – Septuagint, a second century B.C., Greek translation of the Hebrew OT. The notation means the OT quote is taken from the LXX rather than from the Hebrew text since the quote matches the LXX but differs from the Hebrew (e.g., Matt 3:2). When there is no notation it means the source could be either the Hebrew or the LXX (e.g., Matt 2:6).
NT – New Testament (e.g., Matt 6:13).
OT – Old Testament (e.g., Matt 3:23).
or – Alternative, traditional, or slightly less literal translation (e.g., Matt 1:2).
see – Cross reference (e.g., John 18:32).
Miscellaneous Abbreviations and Notations
[wife] – Words added for clarity are bracketed (e.g., Matt 1:6).
But – Indicates the use of the Greek strong adversative (alla – e.g., Matt 4:4) instead of the weak adversative (de, translated as “but” when used in an adversative sense – e.g., Matt 3:7).
Lord – Lord – The former indicates the OT verse from which the quote is taken has Yahweh (the Hebrew proper name for God – Matt 4:7). The latter indicates the OT has adonai (the general word for “lord” – e.g., Matt 22:44).
you – Indicates the pronoun is emphasized in the Greek text (also, he, she, etc. – e.g., Matt 3:11,14).
you* – Indicates the original is plural (also, your* – e.g., Matt 2:8). With no asterisk the second person pronoun is singular (e.g., Matt 1:20).
“Be taking care not to be doing your* charitable giving before the people, in order to be seen by them; but if not,a you* do not have a reward from your* Father, the [One] in the heavens. 2So when you are doing charitable giving, you should not sound a trumpet before you like the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, in order that they shall be praised by the people. Positively, I say to you*, they are receiving their reward in full. 3But when you do charitable giving, do not let your left hand know what the right hand is doing, 4in order that your charitable giving shall be in secret, and your Father, the [One] seeing in secret, will Himself reward you in the open.
5“And when you are praying, you will not be like the hypocrites, because they affectionately love standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the open streets to be praying, in order that they shall be seen by the people. Positively, I say to you*, they have their reward in full. 6But when you are praying, enter into your private room, and having shut your door, pray to your Father, the [One] in secret, and your Father, the [One] seeing in secret, will reward you in the open.
7“Now when you* pray, do not use vain repetitionsb like the Gentiles, for they suppose that they will be heard by their many words. 8Therefore, you* shall not be like them, for your* Father knows what [things] you* have need of before you* ask Him. 9Therefore, you*, be praying like this:
Our Father, the [One] in the heavens, let Your name be regarded as holy.
10Let Your kingdom come.
Let Your will be done, as in heaven, [so] also on the earth.
11Give us today the bread sufficient for the day.
12And forgive us our debtsc, in the same way as we also forgive our debtors.d
13And do not lead us into temptation,e but deliverf us from evil.g
Because Yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever!h So be it!i
14“For if you* forgive the people their transgressions, your* Father, the [One] in the heavens, will also forgive you,* 15but if you* do not forgive the people their transgressions, neither will your* Father forgive your* transgressions.j
16“And when you* are fasting, stop becoming gloomy like the hypocrites, for they disfigure their faces, in order that they shall appear to the people [as] fasting. Positively, I say to you*, they are receiving their reward in full. 17But when you fast, anoint your head and wash your face, 18in order that you shall not appear to the people [as] fasting, but [only] to your Father, the [One] in secret, and your Father, the [One] seeing in secret, will reward you.
19“Stop treasuringk up treasures for yourselves on the earth, where moth and rust destroy, and where thieves break in and steal, 20but be treasuringl up treasures for yourselves in heaven, where neither moth nor rust destroys, and where thieves do not break in nor steal, 21for where your* treasure is, there will your* heartm be also.
22“The lamp of the body is the eye. Therefore, if your eye is healthy, all your body will be full of light. 23But if your eye is bad, all your body will be dark. Therefore, if the light in you is darkness, how great the darkness!
24“No one is able to be serving as a slave to two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other; you* are not able to be serving as a slave to God and to worldly wealth.
25“For this reason I say to you*, stop being anxious [about] your* life, what you* shall eat and what you* shall drink, nor [about] your* body, what you* shall wear. Life is more [than] the nourishment, and the body [more than] the clothing, is it not? 26Look attentively at the birds of the air, for they do not sow nor reap nor gather into barns, and your* heavenly Father provides for them. You* are of much more worth than they, are you* not? 27But which of you*, by being anxious, is able to add on his height one cubit?n
28“And why are you* anxious about clothing? Be attentively observing the lilies of the field, how they grow. They do not labor nor do they spin [to make clothing]. 29But I say to you*, not even Solomon in all his glory was arrayed like one of these. 30Now if God clothes in such a manner the grass of the field, being [here] today and tomorrow is thrown into the furnace, [He will] much more [clothe] you*, [O you*] of little faith, will He not?31“Therefore, do not be anxious, saying, ‘What shall we eat?’ or, ‘What shall we drink?’ or, ‘What shall we wear?’ 32For all these [things] the Gentiles seek, for your* heavenly Father knows that you* have need of all these [things]. 33But be seeking first the kingdom of God and His righteousness, and all these [things] will be added to you.* 34Therefore, you* should not be anxious for tomorrow, for tomorrow will be anxious for the [things] of itself; sufficient for the day [is] the evil of it.
b or, many meaningless words
c fig., sins
d fig., the ones having sinned against us.
e or, testing,; or, trials,
f or, spare
g or, from the evil [one].
h lit., into the ages!
i Gr. Amen, and throughout NT
j cp. Matthew 18:23-25
k or, storing
l or, storing
m fig., inner desire
n about 18” or 46 cm – or, add onto his lifespan a single hour?
In [the] beginning was the Word,a and the Word was withb God, and the Word was God.c 2This One was in the beginning with God. 3All [things] came to be through Him, and without Him not even one thing came to be which has come to be. 4In Him was life, and the life was the Light of the people. 5And the Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not overpowerd it.
6There came a man having been sent from God, [the] name to hime [was] John. 7This one came for a testimony, so that he should testify concerning the Light, so that all should believe through him. 8That one was not the Light, but [he came] so that he should testify concerning the Light.
9He was the true Light which enlightens every person coming into the world. 10He was in the world, and the world came to be through Him, and the world did not know Him. 11He came to His own, and His own did not receive Him. 12But as many as received Him, He gave to them authority to become children of God—to the ones believingf in His name, 13who were begotten, not fromg bloods, nor from a will of [the] flesh, nor from [the] will of a man, but from God.
14And the Wordh became flesh and tabernacled among us, and we beheld His glory, glory as of an only-begotteni from [the] Father, full of grace and truth. 15John testifies concerning Him and has cried out, saying, “This was [the Man concerning] whom I said, ‘The One coming after me before me has come to be, for He was before me.’” 16And out of His fullness we all received, even grace in place of grace.j 17For the Law was given through Moses: grace and truth came to be through Jesus Christ. 18No one has seen God at any time. The only-begottenk Son, the One in the bosom of the Father, that One explained [Him].l
19And this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent from Jerusalem priests and Levites, so that they should question him, “You, who are you?” 20And he confessed and did not deny, and confessed, “I am not the Christ.”m 21And they questioned him, “What then? Are you Elijah?”n And he says, “I am not.”—“Are you the Prophet?”o And he answered, “No.” 22So they said to him, “Who are you, so that we shall give an answer to the ones sending us? What do you say concerning yourself?” 23He said, “I [am] ‘a voice shouting in the wilderness: “Make straight the way of [the] Lord,”’ just as Isaiah the prophet said.”p
24And the ones having been sent were from the Pharisees. 25And they questioned him and said to him, “Why then do you baptize,q if you are not the Christ nor Elijah nor the Prophet?” 26John answered them saying, “I baptize in water,r but He has stood in the midst of you* whom you* do not know. 27He is the One coming after me, who has come to be before me, of whom I am not worthy that I untie the strap of His sandal.” 28These things took place in Bethany,s beyond the Jordan [River], where John was baptizing.
29The next day he sees Jesus coming towards him and says, “Look! The Lamb of God, the One taking away the sin of the world! 30This is [the Man] concerning whom I said, ‘After me comes a Man, who has come before me, because He was before me.’ 31And I did not know Him. However, so that He should be revealed to Israel, for this reason I came in water baptizing.”
32And John testified, saying, “I have seen the Spirit coming down as a dove out of heaven, and He remained upon Him. 33And I did not know Him; but the One having sent me to baptize in water, that [One] said to me, ‘Upon whomever you see the Spirit coming down and remaining upon Him, this is the One baptizing int [the] Holy Spirit.’ 34And I have seen and have testified that this is the Son of God!”
35The next day again John had stood and two of his disciples. 36And having looked attentively at Jesus walking about, he says, “Look! The Lamb of God!” 37And the two disciples heard him speaking, and they followed Jesus. 38But Jesus having been turned and having beheld them following, says to them, “What do you* seek?” But they said to Him, “Rabbi (which [is], being interpreted, Teacher), where are You staying?” 39He says to them, “Be coming and see.” They came and saw where He stayed, and they stayed with Him that day. It was about [the] tenth hour.u
40Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter, was one of the two having heard from John and having followed Him. 41This one finds first his own brother Simon and says to him, “We have found the Messiah!” (which is, being translated, Christ). 42And he brought him to Jesus. Having looked attentively at him, Jesus says, “You are Simon, the son of Jonah; you will be called Cephas” (which is interpreted, Peter).
43The next day He wanted to go out to Galilee. And Jesus finds Philip and says to him, “Be following Me!” 44And Philip was from Bethsaida, of the city of Andrew and Peter. 45Philip finds Nathanael and says to him, “[The One about] whom Moses wrote in the Law and the prophets we have found—Jesus the Son of Joseph, who [is] from Nazareth.”v 46And Nathanael said to him, “Is anything good able to comew out of Nazareth?” Philip said to him, “Be coming and see.”47Jesus saw Nathanael coming towards Him, and He says concerning him, “Look! Truly an Israelite in whom [there] is no deceit!”x 48Nathanael says to him, “From where do You know me?” Jesus answered and said to him, “Before Philip called you, while you were under the fig tree, I saw you.” 49Nathanael answered and says to Him, “Rabbi, You are the Son of God! You are the King of Israel!” 50Jesus answered and said to him, “Because I said to you, ‘I saw you under the fig tree,’ you believe; greater things than these you will see.” 51And He says to him, “Most positively, I say to you*, from now [on] you* will see heaveny having been opened, and the angelsz of God ascending and descending upon the Son of Humanity.”aa
fig., the Expression
of [Divine] Logic,
b fig., in communion with
c fig., was as to His essence Deity.
d or, comprehend
e fig., whose name
f or, trusting
g or, by
h fig., the Expression of [Divine] Logic
i or, uniquely-begotten
j i.e., new grace for each new day
k or, unique
l or, made [Him] known.
m “the Anointed One” – or, the Messiah, see Daniel 9:25,26
n see Malachi 4:5,6
o see Deuteronomy 18:15-18
p Isaiah 40:3, LXX
q or, immerse, and throughout book
r or, with water, and throughout book
s i.e., located in Perea
t or, with
u i.e., 4:00 p.m. Jewish time or 10:00 a.m. Roman time
v Matthew 2:23
w lit., to be
x or, treachery!”
y or, the sky
z or, messengers, and throughout book
aa cp. Genesis 28:12
Consequently, [there is] now no condemnation to the [ones] in Christ Jesus, [who] do not walk abouta according to [the] flesh, but according to [the] Spirit.b 2For the law of the Spirit of the life in Christ Jesus set me free from the law of sin and of death! 3For the [thing] impossible [for] the Law [to do] in that it was weak through the flesh, God [did], having sent His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and concerning sin, condemned sin in the flesh, 4so that the righteous requirement of the Law should be fulfilled in us, the ones not walking aboutc according to [the] flesh, but according to [the] Spirit.
5For the ones being according to [the] flesh set their minds on the [things] of the flesh, but the [ones] according to [the] Spirit [on] the [things] of the Spirit. 6For the mind-setd of the flesh [is] death, but the mind-set of the Spirit [is] life and peace. 7Because the mind-set of the flesh [is] hostile towards God, for it is not subject to the law of God, nor indeed is it able [to be]. 8Now the ones being in [the] flesh are not able to please God.
9But you* are not in [the] flesh but in [the] Spirit, since [the] Spirit of God dwells in you*; but if anyone does not have [the] Spirit of Christ, this one is not His. 10But if Christ [is] in you*, on the one hand the body [is] dead because of sin, on the other hand the Spirit [is] life because of righteousness. 11But if the Spirit of the One having raised up Jesus from [the] dead dwells in you*, the One having raised up Christ from [the] dead will also give life to your* mortal bodies through His Spirit indwelling in you.*
12So consequently, brothers [and sisters], we are debtors,e not to the flesh to be living according to the flesh. 13For if you* live according to [the] flesh, you* are about to die; but if by [the] Spirit you* put to death the deeds of the body, you* will live.
14For as many as are led by [the] Spirit of God, these are the sons [and daughters] of God. 15For you* did not receive a spirit of slavery again for fear, but you* received [the] Spirit of adoptionf by whom we cry out, “Dad,g Father!” 16That very Spirit testifies with our spirit that we are children of God! 17Now if children, also heirs—heirs on the one hand of God, joint-heirs on the other hand with Christ, since we suffer together, so that we shall also be glorified together.
18For I consider that the sufferings of the present time [are] not worthy [to be compared] with the glory about to be revealed in us. 19For the earnest expectation of the creation eagerly awaits the revelation of the sons [and daughters] of God. 20For the creation was subjected to futility, not of its will, but because of the One having subjected [it] in hope,h 21because even the creation itself will be set free from the slavery of the corruption into the liberty of the glory of the children of God. 22For we know that all the creation groans together and labors together in birth-pains until now.
23But not only [this], but even ourselves, having the first-fruit of the Spirit, we also ourselves groan within ourselves, eagerly awaiting adoption—the redemption of our body. 24For in hopei we were saved, but hope being looked at is not hope; for what anyone looks at, why also does he hope forj [it]? 25But if what we do not look at we hope for, with patient endurance we eagerly wait for [it].
26So in the same manner also, the Spirit helps our weaknesses; for what we will pray for, as it is necessary [for us], we do not know, but that very Spirit makes intercession on our behalf with inexpressible groanings. 27Now the One searching the hearts knows what [is] the mind-set of the Spirit, because according to God He intercedes on behalf of [the] holy ones.
28But we know that to the ones loving God all things work together for good, to the ones being called according to [His] purpose. 29Because whom He foreknew, He also predestined [to be] similar in naturek to the image of His Son, for Him to be the firstbornl among many brothers [and sisters]. 30Now whom He predestined, these He also called; and whom He called, these He also justified;m but whom He justified, these He also glorified.
31What then will we say about these [things]? Since God [is] for us,n who [is] against us? 32The [One] who indeed did not spare His own Son, but [who] handed Him over on behalf of us all, how will He not also with Him graciously give to us all [things]? 33Who will bring a charge against [the] chosen ones of God? God [is] the One justifying.o 34Who [is] the one condemning? Christ [is] the One having died, but rather also, having been raised up, who is also at [the] right hand of God, who also intercedes on our behalf.35Who will separate us from the love of Christ? [Will] affliction or distress or persecution or famine or nakedness or peril or sword? 36Just as it has been written, “For Your sake we are being put to death the whole day; we were accounted as sheep for slaughter.”p 37But in all these [things] we are completely victorious through the One having loved us. 38For I have been persuaded that neither death nor life nor angelsq nor rulers nor powers nor [things] present nor things about to be 39nor height nor depth nor any other created [thing] will be able to separate us from the love of God, the [one] in Christ Jesus our Lord!
b or, to spirit, and possibly elsewhere in 8:2-15
c fig., conducting ourselves
d or, the way of thinking
e fig., under obligation,
f fig., the Spirit that legally and formally makes you sons and daughters
g Gr. Abba
h or, confident expectation,
i or, confident expectation (three times)
j or, confidently expect, and in verse 25
k or, conformed
l fig., spiritual head
m or, declared righteous;
n or, on our side,
o or, declaring righteous.
p Psalm 44:22
q or, messengers [of the Lord]
And I saw in the right hand of the One sitting on the throne a scroll having been written inside and outside, having been sealed with seven seals. 2And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a loud voice, “Who is worthy to open the scroll and to break its seals?” 3And no one in the heaven above nor on the earth nor under the earth was being able to open the scroll, nor to be looking at it. 4And I began weeping greatly, because no one was found worthy to open the scroll, nor to be looking at it.
5And one of the elders says to me, “Stop weeping! Listen! The Lion overcame, the One from the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, the One opening the scroll and its seven seals.” 6And I saw in [the] middle of the throne and of the four living creatures, and in [the] middle of the elders, a Lamba having stood as if having been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spiritsb of God being sent into all the earth. 7And He came and has taken out of the right hand of the One sitting on the throne. 8And when He took the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one having a harp and golden bowls full of incenses, which are prayers of the holy ones.c 9And they sing a new song, saying:
“You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals, because You were slain, and You redeemed us to God by Your blood, out of every tribe and tongued and people and nation, 10and made them kings and priests to our God, and they will reign as kings on the earth!”
11And I looked, and I heard as [it were the] voice of many angels around the throne and of the living creatures and of the elders; and the number of them was ten thousand [times] ten thousand, and thousands of thousands, 12saying with a loud voice:
“Worthy is the Lamb, the One having been slain, to receive the power and the wealth and wisdom and strength and honor and glory and blessing!”
13And every creature which is in heaven and in the earth and under the earth and on the sea, and the [things] in them, I heard all saying:
“To the One sitting on the throne and to the Lamb, [be] the blessing and the honor and the glory and the mighte forever and ever!f So be it!”
14And the four living creatures saying the “So be it” and the elders fell down and prostrated themselves in worship.
i.e., Jesus, cp. John 1:29
b fig., which is the seven-fold Spirit
c or, saints, and throughout book
d fig., language group, and throughout book
e or, dominion
f lit., into the ages of the ages!
Scripture taken from the Analytical-Literal Translation of the New Testament: Devotional Version. Copyright © 1999-2012 by Gary F. Zeolla (www.Zeolla.org).
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